Range of validity

Equation  of Thorp is used only in the following conditions. The parameter except the frequency is not considered.

 T  = 4 C

 S  = 35 ppt

 D = 1 km

Francois and Garrison estimate their model to be accurate to within about 5%.

For frequencies of 10-500 kHz (where the MgSO4 contribution dominates), the limits of reliability are:

-2 < T < 22 C

30 < S < 35 ppt

0 < D < 3.5 km

At frequencies greater than 500 kHz, the pure water contribution exceeds that of MgSO4, and the limits are:

0 < T < 30 C

0 < S < 40 ppt

0 < D < 10 km

The Ainslie and McColm formula retains accuracy to within 10% of the Francois and Garrison model between 100 Hz and 1 MHz for the following range of oceanographic conditions:

-6 < T < 35 C

(S = 35 ppt, pH=8, D = 0 km)

7.7 < pH < 8.3

(T = 10 C, S = 35 ppt, D = 0 km)

5 < S < 50 ppt

(T = 10 C, pH = 8, D = 0 km)

0 < D < 7 km

(T = 10 C, S = 35 ppt, pH = 8)

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