Range of validity
Equation of Thorp is used only in the following conditions. The parameter except the frequency is not considered.
T = 4 C |
S = 35 ppt |
D = 1 km |
Francois and Garrison estimate their model to be accurate to within about 5%.
For frequencies of 10-500 kHz (where the MgSO_{4} contribution dominates), the limits of reliability are:
-2 < T < 22 C |
30 < S < 35 ppt |
0 < D < 3.5 km |
At frequencies greater than 500 kHz, the pure water contribution exceeds that of MgSO_{4}, and the limits are:
0 < T < 30 C |
0 < S < 40 ppt |
0 < D < 10 km |
The Ainslie and McColm formula retains accuracy to within 10% of the Francois and Garrison model between 100 Hz and 1 MHz for the following range of oceanographic conditions:
-6 < T < 35 C |
(S = 35 ppt, pH=8, D = 0 km) |
7.7 < pH < 8.3 |
(T = 10 C, S = 35 ppt, D = 0 km) |
5 < S < 50 ppt |
(T = 10 C, pH = 8, D = 0 km) |
0 < D < 7 km |
(T = 10 C, S = 35 ppt, pH = 8) |